Advance Warning

These Resources provide you with information on Advance Warning equipment and protocols, including traffic control devices, their deployment, and SOPs/SOGs. Please note that a module on Advance Warning is available on the Responder Safety Learning Network (

Citizens’ Hose Company Struck By Case Study

Go inside the December 17, 2020 struck by incident that shook Citizens’ Hose Company (Smyrna, DE) to its core and hear from the firefighters involved what happened, how traffic control made the difference, and how the department has responded moving forward.

Upload Date: 8/17/2021

Connecticut Traffic Incident Scene Management Field Guide

Developed by the Capitol Region Council of Governments Greater Hartford Traffic Incident Management (TIM) Coalition, this field guide provides guidance for traffic incident scene management for emergency response organizations. Includes TIM and responder safety basic principles, guidelines for deploying traffic control devices, recommended TIM procedures, and practical diagrams of traffic control applications like vehicle classification, stopping distances, and traffic incident management area setups for different roadway configurations.

Upload Date: 10/21/2021

Effects of Emergency Vehicle Lighting on Drivers

“Effects of Emergency Vehicle Lighting Characteristics on Driver Perception and Behavior: Study Report” is an ERSI report of human factors research in cooperation with RPI and Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University. The study investigates the impact of lighting color, intensity, modulation, flash rate, and presence of retroreflective chevron markings on driver behavior while traversing a simulated traffic incident scene at night. Findings cover the effects of lamp intensity, lamp color, and retroreflective markings on the visibility of a simulated responder at a test incident scene. Whether these factors create a “moth to flame” effect was also examined. The report describes the experiment design, the tasks researchers completed, and the results observed.

Upload Date: 1/5/2022

Emergency Vehicle Visibility and Conspicuity Study

This report, produced in partnership between the U.S. Fire Administration (USFA) and the International Fire Service Training Association (IFSTA), analyzes emergency vehicle visibility and conspicuity with an eye toward expanding efforts in these areas to improve vehicle and roadway operations safety for all emergency responders. Emphasis in this report is placed on passive visibility/conspicuity treatments. Key finidings include additional research on emergency vehicle visibility and conspicuity in the United States, with particular emphasis on the interaction between civilian drivers and emergency vehicles during responses and on incident scenes.

Upload Date: 12/27/2012

Evaluation of Chemical and Electric Flares

Following a brief literature review, this research project conducted a comparison of the different flares and related traffic control devices in order to identify and examine alternative highway flare systems utilizing chemical or electric sources of energy to determine their suitability and visibility.

Upload Date: 12/21/2012

Categories: Advance Warning | Reports

Fire Apparatus Emergency Lighting Study Report

This report details the history of how the current fire apparatus lighting standards were developed, summarizes the last 20 years of research on emergency lighting, and has the results of a study done in May 2019 specifically addressing what changes should be made to fire apparatus lighting standards in response to the change to LED lighting.

Upload Date: 6/20/2019

Florida Highway Patrol Emergency Lighting Research & Prototype Evaluation

Beginning in 1998, the Florida Highway Patrol began to examine safety issues surrounding the roadside environment in which we do much of our work. This began with a holistic approach, looking into all aspects of the issue. This includes working with manufacturers to make the vehicles safer, the installation of aftermarket equipment, policies and procedures for making the stops and working outside the vehicle as a pedestrian.

Upload Date: 3/27/2013

Florida Highway Patrol Enhancing Rear - Approach Conspicuity of Police Vehicles

The nature of law enforcement work requires police vehicles be frequently stopped on or near roadways, exposing them to a risk of rear-end type collisions. Beyond emergency vehicle lighting, what treatments can enhance vehicle conspicuity to mitigate those risks?

Upload Date: 3/27/2013

Hardening Blocking Vehicles for Traffic Incidents and Planned Special Events

This report summarizes a workshop convened during the 2018 National Traffic Incident Response Awareness Week on how to harden blocking vehicles to protect responders and the public.

Upload Date: 4/2/2019

Highway Incident Safety and MUTCD Guidelines for Emergency Responders

The Cumberland Valley Volunteer Firemen’s Association (CVVFA) and their Emergency Responder Safety Institute (ERSI) developed this manual and the accompanying online-based training course for first responders and other personnel who respond to roadway incident scenes. In the initial minutes of a roadway incident, responders often find themselves operating in moving traffic at great peril.

Upload Date: 11/6/2013

Impacts of Emergency Vehicle Marking Color, Patterns and Retroreflectivity on Safety-Related Driver Responses: Study Report

This ERSI study reports the results of a field experiment to investigate the impacts of emergency vehicle marking color, retroreflectivity level and spatial patterns on drivers’ ability to see emergency responders working near their vehicles was carried out. The study also examined the impacts of a wearable flashing LED light.

Upload Date: 12/7/2023

Position of the Emergency Responder Safety Institute on the Use of Advance Warning Traffic Signs

This statement presents the position of the CVVFA Emergency Responder Safety Institute on the use of temporary traffic signs for advance warning at roadway incidents.

Upload Date: 6/7/2011

PPE & Warning Sign Reflectivity Comparison

Don’t be "That" Guy! PPE & Warning Sign Reflectivity Comparison

Upload Date: 12/2/2015

Struck-By Survivor Stories Video

What happens after an emergency responder is struck by a vehicle? Five emergency responders changed forever by a struck by experience tell their stories.

Upload Date: 7/6/2022

Study of Protecting Emergency Responders on the Highways and Operation of Emergency Vehicles

A Review of First Responder Agencies Who Have Adopted Emergency Lighting and Vehicle Conspicuity Technology. *A new draft and been issued on June 12, 2019 with two corrections on page 27.*

Upload Date: 6/12/2019

The First 15 Minutes - Decision Making at Roadway Incidents

This Power Point program provides training for responders on the first arriving apparatus at a highway incident. The first 15 minutes of an incident often sets the tone for the entire response. Learn how practices such as “windshield size up” can make the scene safer.

Upload Date: 9/6/2013

Traffic Incident Management Area (TIMA)

Traffic Incident Management Area (TIMA)

Upload Date: 4/3/2019

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